## Factorization of Polynomials

The rational zeros and the linear factor decomposition of a polynomial are determined.

*p(x) = a _{9}·x^{9} + a_{8}·x^{8} + ... + a_{0}*.

The coefficients of the polynomial can be entered as fractions, as mixed numbers or as breaking decimal numbers.

p(x) = x^{5}- 9·x^{4}- 82/9·x^{3}+ 82·x^{2}+ x - 9 = (1/9)·(9·x^{5}- 81·x^{4}- 82·x^{3}+ 738·x^{2}+ 9·x - 81) = (1/9)·(3·x - 1)·(3·x + 1)·(x - 9)·(x - 3)·(x + 3) Rational zeros: 1/3, -1/3, 9, 3, -3

First, the coefficients are brought to whole numbers by excluding the fraction factors. The rational zeros are then determined and the polynomial broken down into the associated linear factors. Factors that have no rational zeros are not further broken down.

### Further examples:

p(x) = x^{6}+ x^{5}- 5·x^{4}- 5·x^{3}+ 4·x^{2}+ 4·x = x·(x - 1)·(x + 1)^{2}·(x - 2)·(x + 2) Rational zeros: 0, 1, -1, 2, -2

p(x) = x^{6}- 36·x^{5}+ 505·x^{4}- 3480·x^{3}+ 12139·x^{2}- 19524·x + 10395 = (x - 1)·(x - 3)·(x - 5)·(x - 7)·(x - 9)·(x - 11) Rational zeros: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11

p(x) = 0,2·x^{5}+ x^{4}+ 2·x^{3}+ 2·x^{2}+ x + 0,2 = (1/5)·(x^{5}+ 5·x^{4}+ 10·x^{3}+ 10·x^{2}+ 5·x + 1) = (1/5)·(x + 1)^{5}Rational zeros: -1

p(x) = -432·x^{5}- 648·x^{4}+ 837·x^{3}+ 1835·x^{2}+ 875·x + 125 = (3·x + 1)^{2}·(3·x - 5)·(4·x + 5)^{2}Rational zeros: -1/3, 5/3, -5/4

p(x) = x^{5}+ 3·x^{4}+ 8/3·x^{3}- x - 1/3 = (1/3)·(3·x^{5}+ 9·x^{4}+ 8·x^{3}- 3·x - 1) = (1/3)·(x + 1)^{3}·(3·x^{2}- 1) Rational zeros : -1 Irrational zeros : -0,57735, 0,57735

If, as in the last example, a residual polynomial with a degree less than or equal to 4 remains, any remaining irrational zeros can be determined using
the program part *Algebra/Equations of 4th degree*.

If the degree of the residual polynomial is greater than 4, it is still possible
to search graphically for further zeros using the program part *Analysis/Curve Sketching*.

### See also:

Wikipedia: Factorization of polynomials